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On 13 February 2019, at a gathering convened in Côte d’Ivoire, a group of eminent experts in international law and human rights adopted the Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. In addition to the drafting at the final meeting, experts have contributed to the Abidjan Principles in various ways, through background research, reviews, or comments. The experts come from universities and organisations located in all regions of the world and include current and former members of international human rights treaty bodies, including regional human rights bodies, members of the judiciary, and former and current Special Rapporteurs of the United Nations Human Rights Council.

These experts act in their individual capacity. The institutions listed with the names of the authors are for the purpose of identification rather than endorsement of the commentary given by these institutions.

Based on rigorous legal research, the undersigned experts adopted the Abidjan Principles:

  1. Frank Adamson; Assistant professor of Education Leadership and Policy Studies, California State University, Sacramento; United States of America

  2. Philip Alston; UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights; John Norton Pomeroy Professor of Law, New York University School of Law; Australia

  3. Boly Barry Koumba; UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education; Burkina Faso

  4. Lelio  Bentes Correa; Justice, Superior Labour Court of Brazil; Member of the Committee of Experts in the Application of Conventions and Recommendations of the International Labour Organization; Brazil

  5. Joanna Bourke-Martignoni; Researcher, Gender Centre, Graduate Institute; Switzerland

  6. Virginia Bras Gomes; Senior Social Policy Adviser and former Chair of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Portugal

  7. Iain Byrne; Lawyer and researcher on economic, social and cultural rights; Fellow, Human Rights Centre, Essex University; United Kingdom

  8. Joshua Castellino; Professor of law and former Dean of the School of Law and the Business School, Middlesex University, London; India

  9. Fernando Cássio; Assistant Professor at the Federal University of ABC; Brazil

  10. Lilian Chenwi; Professor of Law, University of the Witwatersrand; South Africa

  11. Fons Coomans; Professor of Human Rights; UNESCO Chair in Human Rights and Peace, Maastricht University; The Netherlands

  12. Klaus D. Beiter; Associate Professor of Law, North-West University (Potchefstroom); Associated Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich; Ambassador, Observatory Magna Charta Universitatum, Bologna; South Africa

  13. Olivier De Schutter; Former UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food (2008-2014); Professor, UC Louvain and Sciences Po; Belgium

  14. Surya Deva; Associate Professor, City University of Hong Kong; China

  15. Sandra Epal Ratjen; Independent researcher; France

  16. Sandra Fredman; Rhodes Professor of the Laws of the British Commonwealth and the USA; University of Oxford South Africa

  17. James Goldston; Executive Director, Open Society Justice; Initiative United States of America

  18. Joanna Härmä; Independent researcher; Finland

  19. Esteban Hoyos Ceballos; Professor of law, EAFIT University law school; Colombia

  20. Ibrahima Kane; Advocate, Senegal and France; Senegal

  21. Jamesina Essie L. King; Commissioner of the African Commission on Human & Peoples' Rights and Chairperson of the Working Group on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights; Sierra Leone

  22. David Kinley; Professor, Chair in Human Rights Law, Sydney Law School, University of Sydney; Ireland

  23. Jayna Kothari; Counsel, Karnataka High Court & Supreme Court of India; India

  24. Christopher Lubienski; Professor, Indiana University; United States of America

  25. Marta Maurás Pérez; Chair of UNITAID Executive Board; Former Ambassador/Permanent Representative of Chile at UN, other International Organizations and the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva; Former Vvice-Chairperson of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child; Chile 

  26. Simon McGrath; UNESCO Chair in International Education and Development; Ireland

  27. Archana Mehendale; Adjunct Honorary Professor at Centre for Education Innovation and Action Research, Tata Institute of Social Sciences; India

  28. Angela Melchiorre; Academic Coordinator of Online Programmes, Global Campus of Human Rights; Italy

  29. Mary Metcalfe; Senior Research Associate, University of Johannesburg; South Africa

  30. Jacqueline Mowbray; Associate Professor, University of Sydney Law School; Australia

  31. Binota Moy Dhamai; Independent researcher; Bangladesh

  32. Lydia Mugambe; Judge; Uganda

  33. Moses Ngware; Independent researcher; Kenya

  34. Aoife Nolan; Professor of International Human Rights Law, University of Nottingham; Member, Council of Europe European Committee of Social Rights; Ireland

  35. Manfred Nowak; Professor of Human Rights at Vienna University; Secretary General of the Global Campus of Human Rights, Venice; Independent Expert leading the UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty; Austria

  36. Chidi Odinkalu; Former Chair of Nigeria's National Human Rights Commission; Nigeria

  37. Godfrey Odongo; Member, Board of Advisors, LLM programme Advanced Studies in International Children’s Rights, Leiden University; Kenya

  38. Laura C. Pautassi; Researcher, Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Professor, University of Buenos Aires/UBA Law School, Buenos Aires; Argentina

  39. Jeremy Perelman; Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Programs, Sciences Po Law School, Paris; France

  40. Gauri Pradhan; Former Commissioner of the National Human Rights Commission of Nepal; Nepal

  41. Mervat Rishmawi; Human Rights Consultant; Senior Research and Policy Analyst, Middle East and North Africa Specialist; Palestine

  42. Clara Sandoval; Professor, School of Law/Human Rights Centre, University of Essex; Colombia

  43. Benjamin Saul; Challis Chair of International Law, University of Sydney; Chair of Australian Studies, Harvard Law School; Associate Fellow, Royal Institute of International Affairs in London; Australia

  44. Ian Seiderman; Legal and Policy Director, International Commission of Jurists; Switzerland

  45. Magdalena Sepúlveda; Former UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty; Member, Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation; Chile

  46. Ita Sheehy; Education Specialist; Ireland

  47. Heisoo Shin; Member, UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; Republic of Korea

  48. Ann Skelton; Professor of law, University of Pretoria; UNESCO Chair in Education Law in Africa; Member of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child; South Africa

  49. Maria Smirnova; Honorary Research Fellow, Manchester International Law Centre, University of Manchester; Russia

  50. Prachi Srivastava; Associate Professor, University of Western Ontario; Adjunct Professor, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa; Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Centre for International Education, University of Sussex; Canada

  51. Manisuli Ssenyonjo; Professor of International Law and Human Rights, Brunel University London; Uganda

  52. Gita Steiner-Khamsi; Professor, Teachers College, Columbia University (New York) and the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva); United States of America and Switzerland

  53. Faranaaz Veriava; Head of the Education Rights Programme, Section27; Lecturer at the University of Pretoria; South Africa

  54. Nesa Zimmermann; MLaw, LL.M., University of Geneva; Switzerland

  55. Roman Zinigrad; J.S.D. candidate, Yale Law School; Visiting fellow at the Sciences Po Law School; Israel